Paul Broca identified an approximate region of the brain in 1861 which, when damaged in two of his patients, caused severe deficits in speech production, where his patients were unable to speak beyond a few monosyllabic words. This deficit, known as Broca's or expressive aphasia , is characterized by difficulty in speech production where speech is slow and labored, function words are absent, and syntax is severely impaired, as in telegraphic speech . In expressive aphasia, speech comprehension is generally less affected except in the comprehension of grammatically complex sentences.  Wernicke's area is named after Carl Wernicke , who in 1874 proposed a connection between damage to the posterior area of the left superior temporal gyrus and aphasia, as he noted that not all aphasic patients had suffered damage to the prefrontal cortex.  Damage to Wernicke's area produces Wernicke's or receptive aphasia , which is characterized by relatively normal syntax and prosody but severe impairment in lexical access, resulting in poor comprehension and nonsensical or jargon speech . 
Hemispherectomy (disconnection or removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere) is a rare surgical procedure used for the relief of drug-resistant epilepsy in children. After hemispherectomy, contralateral hemiplegia persists whereas gross expressive and receptive language functions can be remarkably spared. Motor speech deficits have rarely been examined systematically, thus limiting the accuracy of postoperative prognosis. We describe the speech profiles of hemispherectomized participants characterizing their intelligibility, articulation, phonological speech errors, dysarthric features, and execution and sequencing of orofacial speech and non-speech movements. Thirteen participants who had undergone hemispherectomy (six left, seven right; nine with congenital, four with acquired hemiplegia; operated between four months and 13 years) were investigated. Results showed that all participants were intelligible but showed a mild dysarthric profile characterized by neuromuscular asymmetry and reduced quality and coordination of movements, features that are characteristic of adult-onset unilateral upper motor neuron dysarthria, flaccid-ataxic variant. In addition, one left and four right hemispherectomy cases presented with impaired production of speech and non-speech sequences. No participant showed evidence of verbal or oral dyspraxia. It is concluded that mild dysarthria is persistent after left or right hemispherectomy, irrespective of age at onset of hemiplegia. These results indicate incomplete functional re-organization for the control of fine speech motor movements throughout childhood, and provide no evidence of hemispheric differences.