In applying a client directed outcome informed approach (Duncan, Miller Sparks, 2004), the caller is recognised as the 'expert' on their problem. A relationship (rapport) with the caller cannot be established without first listening and seeking to understand the caller's issues from perspective, while valuing and respecting their position. Change is driven by the caller and it is important that their ideas about options, management and change are explored. The need for empathy and caring and the ability to reduce the callers stress while providing an opportunity the caller to speak openly regarding their problems is paramount.
Hale & Fields (2007) explored the concept of servant leadership in a Ghanaian context and found that while there are many aspects of servant leadership that are similar to leader attributes that may be endorsed across cultures such as motive arousing, confidence building, team building and foresight, some differences among cultures may limit the extent to which the servant leadership approach is viewed as effective. For example, servant leadership often focuses on follower development with the intention of increasing follower capacity to exercise creative approaches and take on greater responsibilities at work. However, these efforts may be viewed as effective primarily in settings where the ability and willingness of followers to exercise initiative and direct their own activities is viewed as desirable (Fields et al., 2006; Hofstede, 2001). In more individualistic and lower power distance cultures such as the USA, leaders who help equip followers to take initiative and undertake creative solutions on their own tend to be viewed very positively (Hale & Fields 2007). However, in higher power distance cultures, leaders whose followers take initiative on their own without waiting for explicit direction may be seen as weak leaders (Hofstede, 2001). In cultures which are more collective, followers may be not feel comfortable with leaders who emphasize follower individual initiative and creativity because these are viewed as being best accomplished through group discussion and decisions.