As such, it seems that an account of addiction could (and has been) construed in a purely biological vein; that dopamine acts hedonically to produce pleasure, and by increasing intake of drugs eliciting the dopamine 'pleasure response' the body becomes physically addicted. However, when this has been tested in animal models, by blocking, lesioning or removing the ability to respond to dopamine post-addiction learning, animals continue to prefer the pleasurable consummatory behaviours (. an increased consumption of sucrose water) as before. (see Berridge and Robinson, 1998; Cannon and Palmiter, 2003).
Healthy volunteer subjects were designated as controls (Group 1). ICU patients were divided into three groups: without SIRS (Group 2); with SIRS (Group 3); with SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (Group 4). The latter groups had APACHE II scores >15. [GPx-3] and [Se] were determined by standard methods within the first 48 h of admission to ICU. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test were used for analysis of non-parametric continuous variables. The predictive value of [Se] and [GPx-3] for SIRS was calculated using a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. In SIRS and MODS patients [GPx-3] and [Se] decreased significantly (P = and P = , respectively). After ICU admission [GPx-3] and [Se] had a predictive value for SIRS ([GPx-3] sensitivity: 90%, specificity: % (cut-off value: U/mL); [Se]: sensitivity 90%, specificity % (cut-off value: 60 microg/L). [Se] had predictive value for ICU mortality (P = ).
Having identified some of the behavioural theories of groups and teams, the main point I have identified is that different theories are efficient and effective in different situations. The effectiveness of Tuckman's theory (figure 1) for example, I believe would be more evident being applied to a team bigger than The Young Enterprise team as well as people who were not in an informal group to begin with for the full process to take its course. The main disadvantage of this process however is that it can be quite time consuming and would be unsuitable to apply on teams that are constantly changing as they will not have time to apply all the stages as it is suggested that too little time may result in issues not being dealt with satisfactorily at a particular stage (Buchanan (1997)). I therefore believe that the theories of group behaviour may be used to maximise the effectiveness of a team's success depending on how well they are applied to the given circumstance.